There are a few tax rules that affect everyone who files a federal income tax return. This includes the rules for dependents and exemptions. The IRS has seven facts on these rules to help you file your taxes.
1. Exemptions cut income. There are two types of exemptions: personal exemptions and exemptions for dependents. You can usually deduct $3,900 for each exemption you claim on your 2013 tax return. Exemptions amounts are reduced for taxpayers whose adjusted gross income is above certain levels, which is determined by your filing status.
2. Personal exemptions. You can usually claim an exemption for yourself. If you’re married and file a joint return you can also claim one for your spouse. If you file a separate return, you can claim an exemption for your spouse only if your spouse had no gross income, is not filing a return, and was not the dependent of another taxpayer.
3. Exemptions for dependents. You can usually claim an exemption for each of your dependents. A dependent is either your child or a relative that meets certain tests. You can’t claim your spouse as a dependent. You must list the Social Security number of each dependent you claim. See IRS Publication 501, Exemptions, Standard Deduction, and Filing Information, for rules that apply to people who don’t have an SSN.
4. Some people don’t qualify. You generally may not claim married persons as dependents if they file a joint return with their spouse. There are some exceptions to this rule.
5. Dependents may have to file. People that you can claim as your dependent may have to file their own federal tax return. This depends on many things, including the amount of their income, their marital status and if they owe certain taxes.
6. No exemption on dependent’s return. If you can claim a person as a dependent, that person can’t claim a personal exemption on his or her own tax return. This is true even if you don’t actually claim that person as a dependent on your tax return. The rule applies because you have to right to claim that person.
7. Exemption phase-out. The $3,900 per exemption is subject to income limits. This rule may reduce or eliminate the amount depending on your income. See Publication 501 for details.